Wednesday, June 10, 2020

The Paper Describe Effects Of Legalization Of Marijuana - 1650 Words

The Paper Describe Effects Of Legalization Of Marijuana (Essay Sample) Content: Legalization of MarijuanaAuthors NameInstitutions NameLegalization of MarijuanaMarijuana, also known as cannabis, refers to a drug prepared from a mixture of greenish-grey finely chopped leaves, flowers, and seeds extracted from the hemp plant known as Cannabis Sativa (Iversen, 2003). It goes by several street names, such as bhang, weed, pot, grass, and ganja. The shredded leaves, flowers, and stems of Cannabis Sativa can be smoked in various ways, such as pipes, cigarettes, and pipes when tobacco is removed and replaced with marijuana. Some marijuana products are ingested orally while others are added to food products. It is a drug that distorts the perception of the real world of the user. Its long-term usage leads to addiction, a serious problem many people around the world are facing.Despite being the most commonly used drug globally, possession and use of marijuana is considered illegal in many countries and constitute a criminal offense that attracts a penalty o r serving a jail term. However, many people, especially the youth, are the regular consumers of this drug. The negative effects of marijuana range from physical to psychological. Some of the immediate physical effects include disorientation, increased heart beat rate, dizziness, slowed reaction time, blood-shot eyes and increased appetite. Psychological effects of marijuana usage are depression, anxiety, impaired thinking, paranoia, and hallucination.The argument of whether marijuana is actually harmful or beneficial has remained a subject of a fierce debate. There have been cases of marijuana being used for medicinal purposes, such as treating nausea and chronic pain caused by cancer and other health conditions. It is claimed that marijuana cures Alzheimer and Glaucoma, and helps in relieving anxiety as well as slowing down cancer growth. The existence of beneficial impacts of marijuana has led to calls for its legalization. In fact, the possession of marijuana in small amounts and controlled usage has been decriminalized and legalized in some parts of the world. Several publications have been released regarding the subject of the legalization of marijuana. Media coverage articles have also been released on the issue of marijuana legalization. Different media articles portray the issue of marijuana legalization in different ways. The New York Times released an article titled The push for legal marijuana spreads on 5th of November 2015. Similarly, the Los Angeles Times also released an article on 4th of November 2015, titled Legalizing marijuana is gaining support, so why did Ohio vote against it? by Matt Pearce.In the Push for legal marijuana spreads by the New York Times, the support for the campaign to legalize Marijuana is commended as a great thing. The article gives an account of four people in Mexico granted the right to cultivate cannabis Sativa for uses termed as personal. The article further shed light on the intentions by the newly sworn in prime minister of Canada, Justin Trudeau, of amending the law in order to enable people to use marijuana recreationally in his country where the drug is already in legal use for the medicinal purpose. The article also reports on the newly introduced bill by a democratic presidential nomination aspirant in the United States that seeks to give people an opportunity to decide for themselves whether to legalize marijuana or not.Laws prohibiting the possession, production, and distribution of Marijuana are considered destructive to the society. A substantial amount of money is lost through apprehension of violators of what is termed as insignificant laws since marijuana is proven to be less harmful as compared to other legalized addictive substances, such as tobacco and alcohol. The article predicts futility in the future prohibition of marijuana usage in both Mexico and America in case the recreational use of marijuana is voted for in California as advocated by activists. Being the first stat e to authorize marijuana usage for medicinal purposes, California is a hub for illegal marijuana from Mexico. Despite the rejection of marijuana legalization initiative in Ohio that could have seen the emergence of a monopoly over production and distribution of marijuana, the article calls for the adoption of the bill meant to give the people a chance to decide on whether marijuana should be legalized or not.The Los Angeles Times article Legalizing marijuana is gaining support, so why did Ohio vote against it? explores the push for legalization of marijuana in the United States. The article opens up by reviewing the growing support accorded to the campaign of legalizing marijuana. In the article, Pearce (2015) states that solid majority now respond that they want legal weed. The article reviews the defeat of marijuana legalization initiative in Ohio through voting. The defeat is attributed to the proposed creation of a monopoly in growing and distribution of marijuana that would ha ve been under the management of a small group of investors who were the initiators of the proposition to legalize recreational and medicinal usage of marijuana.The article outlines the drive to have polls for the legalization of the majority be incorporated in the 2016 presidential election. Marijuana policy project is upbeat about the legalization of marijuana by 2016 despite the Ohio defeat, attributed to the initiators own selfish interest of becoming monopolists. The article explores the build-up to the Ohio campaigns, the defeat and the future similar campaigns whose outcome is unlikely to be influenced by the Ohios outcome. The article gives an insight into general views on the Ohio marijuana legalization polls by various people in various capacities. The majority of these views are positive about the legalization of marijuana in the country in the future. They dispute that any suggestion that what happened in Ohio could be repeated in other states. They argue that the defeat in Ohio did not mark the end of activism for marijuana legalization.In both media coverage articles by the New York Times and the Los Angeles Times, a strong support for marijuana legalization is clearly brought out. The articles express a strong desire by a majority to have marijuana legalized. Despite setbacks in the previous attempts to have marijuana legalized such as the recent case in Ohio, there is a great optimism that the marijuana will be decriminalized and the prohibition on its consumption removed as depicted by the two articles.Scholarly articles have been published on researches carried out on marijuana and its legalization. The articles include The economic case for marijuana legalization in Canada by Larissa Ducatti Flister published in 2012 in Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, and A greener outlook an examination of the pros and cons of marijuana and its possible legal future by James Crawford.In the article The economic case for marijuana legalization in Canada , the effect of prevailing policies concerning the production and consumption of marijuana is examined. Based on the article, many governments globally use substantial amounts or resources in fighting drug production and consumption. Despite the tremendous efforts to curb the menace of drugs, the availability of marijuana on the markets has increased. Just like the rest of the world, the Canadian Government has invested heavily in fighting drug production and consumption. However, the prohibition of marijuana and other narcotics has ensured the industry remains illegal and uncontrolled. This has led to the emergence of monopolies that earn substantial profits from the business. The article does not advocate for the creation of a free market to reduce prices thr...

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Up in Arms About Thesis Writing Services?

Up in Arms About Thesis Writing Services? The Benefits of Thesis Writing Services As you are managing the thought of examinations you'll always be needing notes and the assignments which you have made for the submission can serve the purpose during its very best. So, next time you're in demand of dissertation editing assistance, you know the best place to go. You might also want to be sure the service doesn't re-sell any of the customized work they provide to you, and should they do be confident that there's a ten year lock'' on their capacity to achieve that. You're ready to readily seek the expert services of a web-based service in seconds from any connected device regardless of the period of day. It is possible to always monitor our progress in writing your custom made thesis if you should. Despite the fact that you're likely to choose only one among them, they may allow you to put in writing a better dissertation by making use of their leads. 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Sunday, May 17, 2020

The Influence of Regency England in Pride and Prejudice

English culture has often been guilty of exclusionary attitudes toward those of inferior social rank. Class divisions and their respective roles were established by the Middle Ages, and chronicled in literature. A man’s place in society determined his reputation. Several centuries later, the eighteenth-century magistrate and writer Henry Fielding noted in his novel, Joseph Andrews, that the class-conscious population continued to feel that even â€Å"the least familiarity [with those below in social rank was] a degradation† (137). One of Regency England’s most beloved writers, Jane Austen, continued the tradition of casting literature as a reflection of contemporary society’s biases. Her novels brim with indicators of Regency England’s†¦show more content†¦In Lucas’s case, his occupation as mayor led to knighthood and then a rise in social rank. This in turn bred in Lucas a pointed â€Å"disgust† (Austen 18) at his former exe rtions, and now to merely â€Å"think with pleasure of his own importance† (18-19) satisfies him. Otherwise good-natured, this apathy violates the concept of the ideal gentleman. In contrast to William Lucas, Mr. Darcy epitomizes Regency England’s model gentleman. His sensibleness affects his romantic pursuits. For example, he can discern a superficial prospect from a higher-minded individual like Elizabeth Bennet. He ignores Miss Bingley’s transparent overtures for his affections, favoring Elizabeth’s independent spirit. In one episode centering on Miss Bingley’s pretended interest in literature, Mr. Darcy recognizes that the young woman focuses on the insubstantial; she reads the second volume of a book Mr. Darcy is reading, and she does this purely to impress him, rather than out of any interest in the book’s contents. This focus detracts from the more attractive â€Å"accomplishment† of learning the ability â€Å"to deal with the day-to-day supervision† of a married household, an attribute treasured in Austen’s time (Teachman 109). Were it present in Miss Bingley, she might have enticed Mr. Darcy. A similar contrast differentiates the Bennet sisters. Mr. and Mrs. Bennet favor Jane and Elizabeth, the two oldest Bennet daughters, over their younger daughter Lydia,Show MoreRelatedJane Austen s Pride And Prejudice1294 Words   |  6 PagesJane Austen s exceptional novel Pride and Prejudice has been depicted as a classic that is as much a social study on class, marriage and gender as it is a romantic tale. It is an amusing representation of the social atmosphere of the late eighteenth and mid nineteenth century England, and it is primarily required with courtship rituals of the English high class. The novel is more than a romantic tale, however through Austen s subtle, and ironic style, it addresses gender, class, and marriageRead MoreFeminist Analysis Of Pride And Prejudice1397 Words   |  6 Pa gesMarch 2016 Feminist Analysis of Pride and Prejudice A revolution, a rebellion; literature allows us readers to identify the new up and coming behaviors that stray away from the formal traditions and bringing out the individualism in characters. Whether it’d be on a piece of paper or in actual society, it is very unusual and extremely rare to see a women of the Regency era to even have an opinion or even small judgement. In Jane Austen’s romantic novel, Pride and Prejudice, the traditional role of womenRead MoreThe Representations of Femininity in Pride and Prejudice904 Words   |  4 Pageslives of the upper class. It centers on the values, rituals, and manners of high society in England during the Regency Era. Her most popular novel, Pride and Prejudice published in 1813 maintains the interest of its audiences as it did almost two centuries earlier as evidenced by its frequent incarnations. In 1995, the British Broadcasting Corporation produced a six episode mini-series of Pride and Prejudice in partnership with Arts Entertainment Network starring Jennifer Ehle and Colin Firth asRead MorePride And Prejudice Essay1680 Words   |  7 Pageseras reveal a shift in social perspective on issues of relationships and identity. These themes are prevalent in a comparison between Jane Austen’s bildungsroman novel Pride and Prejudice (1819), set in Regency England, and Fay Weldon’s epistolary novel Letters to Alice on First Reading Jane Austen (1984) placed in Postmodern England. Both texts emphasise the importance of compatibility in relationships and women’s identity in a patriarchal society. Weldon’s discussion of Austen’s context allows aRead MoreThe Man Sphere Versus The Woman s Sphere1103 Words   |  5 Pagesversus the woman’s sphere in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice Abstract Introduction Jane Austen’s novels are known for not only being enthralling but also as characteristic of British society in the nineteenth century. Her novels present a compelling view on the historical, psychological, and sociological issues woven into the plots that are full of irony, farce, and versatile characters. One of Jane Austen’s most appreciated novels Pride and Prejudice illustrates the topic that I will exploreRead MoreAnalysis of Jane Austens Pride and Prejudice and Forsters A Room With A View1652 Words   |  7 PagesJane Austen’s ‘Pride and Prejudice’ utilises setting to reveal Darcy’s true character and allows Elizabeth to gain a true understanding of his nature. Pemberley estate is placed at the centre of the novel both literally and figuratively. In terms of Pemberley’s literal meaning, it informs the reader that the estate belongs to Darcy, while figuratively it reflects the charm of his character. Elizabeth Bennet’s vis it to Pemeberly illuminates’ Darcy’s moral fibre, she is enchanted by its beauty andRead MorePower of Love in Othello and Pride and Prejudice1908 Words   |  8 PagesCompare and contrast how Shakespeare and Austen present the power of love in Othello and Pride and Prejudice. In order for love to be true it must come from both sides equally. Its power will not be strong enough to overcome all obstacles if its foundation is not pure. In Pride and Prejudice, Austen paints a portrait of the power of love as merely unbreakable whereas Shakespeare arguably portrays it as weak and vulnerable. Both Shakespeare and Austen use dialogue as a tool for the constructionRead MoreComparing The Representation Of Women s The Yellow Wallpaper And Pride And Prejudice 1662 Words   |  7 PagesCompare the representation of women in Gilman’s ‘The yellow wallpaper’ and Austen’s ‘pride and prejudice’. To what extent do you agree with the view that Gilman presents conventional patriarchal expectations of women, more critically than Austen. Both Austen and Gilman breakthrough the conformity of femininity at a time of rising feminism in a bid to encourage the female viewpoint which was put down or rather shunned to be less valuable by the society they lived in. Gilman however presents it inRead MoreEssay on Authenticity in Northanger Abbey1544 Words   |  7 Pagescurrent screen versions -- two of which were written for TV -- is that Emma Thompsons screenplay for Sense and Sensibility, Nick Dears for Persuasion and Andrew Davies for Pride and Prejudice -- unlike all of the originals -- were circumscribed first and last by material constraints For the six-part BBC Pride and Prejudice, Andrew Lets Put the Men Back in womens Writing Davies, fresh form his triumphant masculinisation of Middlemarch in 1994, had five hours to play in; he could afford toRead MoreSocial Class in Jane Austen997 Words   |  4 Pagesresulting influence of the diverse societies they revolve in. Although these superficial aspects of Austens stories are protruding at the seams, underneath the skin of these well-clothed dramas lie serious moral issues affecting the culture of England during Austens life. Jane Austen in my opinion grasps the traditional female role through her female characters in her books, for example, Emma Woodhouse, Fanny Price, Catherine Morland, Anne Elliot, and Elizabeth Bennett of Pride and Prejudice. Her

Friday, May 15, 2020

Dualism - 1476 Words

Question: In dualism about the mind and body a more plausible view than the view that we are purely physical beings? Give reason for your answer. Dualism is the view that you consist of a body plus a soul, physicalism is the view that your mental life consists of physical processes in your brain. I hold the position that Physicalism is more plausible than dualism, my argument will be to look at Nagels opinions of both the philosophies and then draw my own conclusion about which is more plausible and finally consider the possibility about whether or not there is an option that a combination of the two could stand with a valid argument. In considering the view that dualism is a more plausible view than the view that we are†¦show more content†¦Dualism states that the connection between the mind and the brain takes form one of what might be called a soul. The mind is a separate entity which cannot be shared or experienced, and one persons experiences are their own. The brain is a separate entity which is connected to the body; it reacts in certain ways which caused certain effects which can be seen as electrical impul ses. Therefore the brain and the mind are separate entities, Therefore there is nothing that can be seen which could lead us to believe that the mind and brain are connected. Therefore we can only speculate what might be there. Dualism provides a rational explanation in the form of a soul. However some people my doubt this and prefer to rationalise thinking more, the idea as Nagel explains is that if life has evolved thus far by coincidence then it is entirely possible for the mental link between mind and brain to have also developed by itself. This is the basis of physicalism. The mind is part of the brain and thinking and feeling is a physical response of the brain. Nagel uses the example that, ‘diamonds are composed of carbon, the same material as coal; the atoms are just differently arranged. And water, as we all known, is composed of Hydrogen and oxygen, even though the two elements are nothing like water when taken by themselves. Another point which he goes on to make is, that scientists have toShow MoreRelatedDualism And Dualism970 Words   |  4 Pagesbe making my own argument for a dualist and supply the physicalist response to the argument and its validity. Understanding the difference between dualism and physicalism is beneficial to the mind and body problem. Descartes was a substance dualist. He believed that there were two kinds of substance: matter and mind. The broad definition of dualism is a view in which the body and mind are completely separate entities constructed with different kinds of things. The mind is made of an immaterial substanceRead MoreArgument of Dualism1036 Words   |  5 PagesArguments of Dualism Dualism is the theory that mind and matter are two distinct things. The main argument for dualism is that facts about the objective external world of particles and fields of force, as revealed by modern physical science, are not facts about how things appear from any particular point of view, whereas facts about subjective experience are precisely about how things are from the point of view of individual conscious subjects. They have to be described in the first person asRead MoreDualism Essay844 Words   |  4 PagesDescartes argues in favor of dualism, the mind is completely independent of the body and vice versa. We have a sense this kind of dualism exists when we say, â€Å"I am a mind with a body.† Descartes argues that the self exists in consciousness and that the body is simply a machine the mind controls. Further, dualists support their argument by comparing essences of both the mind and body; the mind is indivisible and free and the body is infinitely divisible and i s determined by the laws of the physicalRead MoreDescartes Teachings On Dualism977 Words   |  4 Pages To understand how the dualist commits a category mistake, one must first understand Descartes’ teachings on dualism from the Meditations on First Philosophy. Firstly, Descartes sees the mind as an immaterial, non-physical soul. He believes that his thoughts can be altered but he can never be tricked into the thinking that he is thinking when he is not. While he has complete faith in the existence of his mind, he doubts the existence of his body and the existence of other people s minds. The reasonRead MoreThe Strengths and Weaknesses of Dualism4580 Words   |  19 PagesDualism is the belief that reality consists of two different, separate substances: that of the mental and that of the physical. In philosophy of mind, the belief that the mental and physical are deeply different in kind: thus the mental is at least not identical with the physical. It directly opposes mat erialism, as dualism dictates that the mind is unidentifiable to the body, as opposed to stating that the mind and body exist as one. The concept of dualism is not only fundamental in philosophyRead MoreRealism : Reality And Dualism1340 Words   |  6 PagesTeena Lin PHI 1500 Fall 2017 Final Paper Reality is Dualism There are currently four major theories about the nature of reality and substance— materialism/physicalism, idealism, transcendental idealism, and dualism. Materialism is the theory that there is only the physical and material world. Idealism takes the position that reality is made up of ideas and immaterial. Transcendental idealism holds the idea that our experience of things are shaped by how they appear to us and not by what they areRead MoreThe Concept of Dualism Essay1013 Words   |  5 Pagesmachinequot; form of substance dualism best solves the mind body problem. My views in this area have been influenced by my twelve years of Catholic education. The soul, or mind, depending on your level of belief, was a complete and separate entity and was the center of a human being. The body was an ambulatory device that the soul directed. The idea that the mind is a separate entity and that it is independent of the physical body is the central point of substance dualism. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Read MoreThe Argument of Dualism Essay960 Words   |  4 Pages In my mind, dualism is a more attractive view to take when considering the mind-brain issue. The idea that the mind is a separate entity and that it is independent of the physical body is the central point of dualism. One reason it appeals to me is because of my religion, my Catholic upbringing. Introspection is another good reason why dualism is a little more logical to me than materialism.. It logically explains why the mind and brain are separate. Also, the divisibility argument raisesRead MoreThe Problem Of Separation And Dualism1399 Words   |  6 Pagessuggests a problem of separation and dualism. Dualism shall be claimed, it is an intuitive position; it offers an explanation of the mind and body in terms of substances (Descartes, 1641) or properties (Strawson, 1959), in which the mind is somehow considered as a non-physical thing, thus separated from the physical world. In contras t, a rival view is that there are only physical things, hence there is no separation between mind and body as suggested by dualism, and that the mind is most accuratelyRead MoreThe Problem Of Separation And Dualism1399 Words   |  6 Pagessuggests a problem of separation and dualism. Dualism shall be claimed, it is an intuitive position; it offers an explanation of the mind and body in terms of substances (Descartes, 1641) or properties (Strawson, 1959), in which the mind is somehow considered as a non-physical thing, thus separated from the physical world. In contrast, a rival view is that there are only physical things, hence there is no separation between mind and body as suggested by dualism, and that the mind is most accurately

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Fight for Racial Equality In North Carolina Essay

Plessy vs. Ferguson was a landmark decision passed in 1896 that instituted the practice of separate but equal in American society. The separate but equal doctrine was an oppressive system of racial segregation which greatly lessened the rights of all minorities especially in public education. The fight for educational equality made public schools in North Carolina and other states in the south a major area of conflict. Wilma Peebles-Wilkins noted, Upward mobility through the educational structure is in keeping with the desires of post-World War II black Americans to enhance their economic, political, and social statuses. There were many court cases in which organizations such as the National Association for the Advancement of†¦show more content†¦There was a great effort in North Carolina to halt integration. In 1955, Governor Luther H. Hodges reported to the North Carolina General Assembly that ?The mixing of the races forthwith in the public schools throughout the state cannot be accomplished and should not be permitted.? In 1955 the Pupil Assignment Act was passed which ?condemned and protested the Brown decision? . The Pupil Assignment Act was the first of many attempts of the North Carolina Legislature to halt integration. This act authorized local schools to implement administrative procedures regarding school transfers and reassignment request. This attempt was viewed by many citizens as a means to implement token integration. On September 2, 1957 the first public school integration in North Carolina took place in Greensboro. According to Clarence Dean of the New York Times, ?The group comprises one senior high school girl, three junior high school boys and on boy and one girl in elementary school.? Some citizens according to Dean praised the action of the city of Greensboro as a ?sincere, although cautious, effort to begin general integration.? However, others regarded the action of the Greensboro and other cities as ?nothing mo re than a device? to implement token integration. Kelley M. Alexander noted that ?The number of pupils accepted had been far less than the number who had applied.? The Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of EducationShow MoreRelatedCivil Rights Movement : North Carolina1680 Words   |  7 PagesThe Civil Rights Movement in North Carolina North Carolina, like all southern states, experienced a civil rights movement after the Civil War. This movement would last for over 100 years until 1965 with the signing of the Civil Rights Act. While the term â€Å"civil rights movement† focuses on ending segregation and discrimination towards African Americans, there were other important freedoms and rights fought for in North Carolina. In addition to race; gender equality and voting rights, as well as,Read MoreThe Freedom Riders For African Americans1491 Words   |  6 PagesWho are the Freedom Riders you may ask? They were a courageous and daring group, which originally consisted of seven African Americans and six Whites.They fought for the equality and justice for their race. They fought against the racist South during the early 1960’s. Their goal was to make a safer and more fair world for current and future African Americans in the United States. They went through hardship and violence from things such as, ang ry mobs and racist law enforcement through a period ofRead MoreMartin Luther King Jr : Letter From Birmingham Jail Essay1678 Words   |  7 Pageswas jailed in Birmingham because of demonstrating. While in prison, he wrote a letter, now popularly known as â€Å"Letter from Birmingham City Jail,† basing his case on the idea of justice and the American commitment. He further addressed the idea of equality because then the white men took the black for granted. Below are the issues that the letter addresses in details. According to J.M. Washington (1986), the clergymen during Dr. King’s time were unhappy with their actions and termed the demonstrationsRead MoreSlavery1305 Words   |  6 Pagestheir expertise of travel, planting and hunting to the new world. The African dugout canoe became the chief means of transportation in the colonies. This expertise from the Africans contributed greatly to the prosperity of South Carolina. Many slaves had their own gardens that they could tend to when they were not working. On Sundays slave holders usually gave the slaves the day off as the day of the Sabbath. It was on this day most slaves would tend to their garden, hunt, or fishRead MoreA brave group of young men and women, black and white alike traveled through the south to support900 Words   |  4 Pagesthrough the south to support black rights (Adamson 39-70). Contributors did not use violence or fight to make a difference (Adamson 39-70). They simply avoided the hate and anger they somehow held inside. Riders traveled through many states, carrying with them a motive, which they were on this ride. Blacks had rights too. The patriotic group the Freedom Riders traveled non-stop towards the south to fight for African Americans. Men and women left knowing they might not come back to their familiesRead MoreSouth Carolina And The Civil Rights Movement2072 Words   |  9 PagesDo you feel that there is equality in North Carolina? If you say yes, this is partially due to the Greensboro Sit Ins and the Civil Rights Movement. Many in North Carolina were impacted by the audacity of what started as some students and the black community members who protested for equality of races even right here in North Carolina, where we call home. â€Å"Despite advances in the fight for racial equality (including the landmark 1954 Supreme Court verdict in Brown v. Board of Education and the MontgomeryRead MoreEssay on Martin Luther Kings Successful Philosophy1019 Words   |  5 Pagesfreed and the constitution was amended to guarantee racial equality, they were still not treated the same as whites and were thought of as second class citizens. One man had the right idea on how to change America, Martin Luther King Jr. had the best philosophy for advancing civil rights, he preached nonviolence to express the need for change in America and he united both African Americans and whites together to fight for economic and social equality. Throughout his education, Martin Luther King JrRead More The Sixties Exposed in Takin it to the Streets and The Dharma Bums1183 Words   |  5 Pagesthe status quo. Savio also stated: The most crucial problems facing the United States today are the problem of automation and the problem of racial injustice (113). A group seeking to change America, Savio and the minority he represented seem to be both advocating and resisting change. While fighting for changes in attitudes toward and the treatment of racial minorities, the group also opposed automation. It seems obvious that automation has been a highly instrumental force in changing American societyRead MoreThe Causation Of The Civil War874 Words   |  4 PagesThe argument I will be discussing is what caused the Civil War, the fight over slavery or over states’ rights. Dew is going to be arguing that the South was fighting to protect their right to have slaves. Dew believes this partly due to the commissioners in the Deep S outh trying to rally people together to fight for the right to protect slaves. Gallagher will be arguing that actually the War was to preserve the Union. Gallagher believes this partly due to the most powerful symbol in the nation, theRead MoreBy the late 1950s, the African American community was ready to fight for the major social change600 Words   |  3 PagesBy the late 1950s, the African American community was ready to fight for the major social change that it had always deserved. In the South, Jim Crow legislation had mandated separate but equal treatment for African Americans since 1876. African Americans were not given equality, however, and leaders emerged from the community to push for African American civil rights. In the effort to desegregate public buildings and transportation, people began to hold sit-ins. These involved peacefully occupying

Plato Essay - 2063 Words

1. a) Explain how Plato’s epistemological assumptions shape his metaphysics (Why does he think that there must be Forms? Hint: Plato says (in effect): â€Å"Since knowledge is certain, therefore the objects of knowledge must be unchanging.†). b) Define Plato’s Forms and present the theory of Forms by explaining the â€Å"divided line.† (You can use the visual image, but explain it.) Plato was extremely devoted in answering the sophists’ skepticism about reason and morality. To do so, he spent more time than any philosopher before him studying knowledge, or epistemology. He realized that to answer the sophists’ skepticism he had to first solve the three main problems that earlier philosophers had left behind; the problems of change, the†¦show more content†¦Plato’s theory of Forms led him to many assumptions, one of the most important of which is his view on the form of â€Å"man† and his relation to the state. He understood that no one man has ever been perfect and that each man participates in the form â€Å"man† to different degrees. Individual men are adequate copies of the true form of â€Å"man†. Plato believed that the men who participate in the form more fully are going to more real, and therefore better, then the men who participate less. This is better explained by his philosophy of the nature of man and his analogous relationship to the state. Plato recognized the nature of man as a psyche, or soul, that was grouped into three main parts. Each of these three parts have motions proper to them that he believed, if harmonized, would lead to eudaimonia, a total well-being. The first, and lowest, part of the soul he called the appetites. The highest part Plato called reason. The third part, between appetite and reason, he called spirit. He saw the state as having three main parts as well, each corresponding to one of the three parts of the human psyche. Every state needs a governing body, whether kings or congress, so this will be the first part. The second is reserved for the essential producing class, which includes merchants, industrial workers, agriculturists, and so on. Third, Plato held that every state needs a group, between the governing and producing classes, to maintainShow MoreRelatedEssay on Plato1158 Words   |  5 PagesPlato: The Life of Plato Plato was born around 427 BC, in Athens Greece to rich and politically involved family. Platos parents spared no expense in educating him; he was taught at the finest schools. He was taught by Socrates and defended Socrates when he was on trial. Plato traveled to Italy and may have even visited Egypt before founding The Academy. 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Contemporary Accounting Theory Commercial Transactions

Question: Discuss about the Contemporary Accounting Theory for Commercial Transactions. Answer: Brief history of the IFRS The concept of convergence of international standards was born somewhere way back in 1950s after the World War II. As a part of increasing harmony between nations, cross border trade and exchange was encouraged. This also led to free capital inflows and outflows and as a part of economic and financial integration, for the purpose of commercial transactions, the need for having a common accounting policy and related preparation of financial statements was felt (Gordon et. al, 2012). With the initial efforts targeted towards harmonization, interest in international accounting developed in 1960s. In 1962, the 8th International Congress Meeting for Accountants was hosted by AICPA. Discussions centered around the action to be taken for the development of accounting, auditing and reporting standards on an international basis. In 1966, United Kingdom Canada formed a study group that was active for almost ten years to study the differences between their accounting practices and arrive at co nclusions based on the best practices. In 1967, the first book on International Accounting authored by Prof. Gerhard G. Mueller was published (Wagenhofer, 2014). Since 1970s, the establishment of independent standard setting bodies began and FASB, IASC was formed. The IASC functioned under AICPA which had its presence in 8 countries with a mission of spreading awareness about the basic accounting standards to be followed in the preparation and presentation of financial statements and to achieve worldwide acceptance of the same. As there was initial reluctance, not all countries agreed to follow the international standards but this was just a welcome initiative (Gordon et. al, 2012). The FASB was also working towards the same mission and decided to revise the accounting standard on foreign currency. In this process, the representatives from UK, Canada and a few other countries actively participated and this was seen as FASBs first such successful initiative towards harmonization of accounting standards (Bae et. al, 2008). In 1987, the IASC issued 25 accounting standards. Most of these already existed in different countries but they had alternative treatment options with reference to the specific accounting item under discussion. So IASC wanted to narrow down these alternatives and make the standards more precise rather than allowing options and giving descriptions about the same. As the FASB and IASC were working independently but towards the same objective, the need for their merger was felt and FASB became a member of IASC in 1987. In late 1980s, FASB stressed on the importance of setting up superior international standards that would have the impact of replacement of the national standards. In 1993, FASB and the representative from Canada undertook a joint venture for issuing a standard on segment reporting and ultimately landed up agreeing on the standards that were substantially the same. After this in 1993, FASB and its related counterparts from United Kingdom, Canada and Australia undertook a group research which was popularly known as G4 and published research reports on 11 such issues relating to financial reporting and accounting for leases. This group later on became G4 +1 as New Zealand also became its member (Walker Chua, 2008). In 1994, concurrent projects on Accounting Standards for Earnings per Share were undertaken by FASB and IASC with the objective of eliminating the differences between the same. In 1995, the FASB commenced the activity of comparison between the GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) of USA and the IASC Standards. In 1995, the IASC undertook the task of compilation of what would constitute the core accounting standards across various countries keeping in view the listing requirements in capital markets across nations. The SEC (Securities Exchange Commission) extended their support for the same. In 1996, the enactment of the National Securities Markets Improvement Act required the establishment of a comprehensive set of generally accepted accounting standards of high quality that would facilitate the financing activities among countries and also enhance the ability of the foreign corporations to gain access to listing in USA. SEC also stated that the financial statements of foreign private users would be accepted if it is of high quality, sufficiently comprehensive and rigorously interpreted and applied (Melville, 2013). In 1998, the crisis of Asian markets triggered the World Bank, IMF and G7 countries to quicken up the process of completion and global adoption of high quality international standards. From the beginning of 2000, IFRS saw a wave of acceptance and slowly and steadily lot of countries became a part of the same. By 2013, the European Union and almost 100 other countries accepted to follow IFRS or standards that were locally variant to the same. In the same year, China Japan have also commenced working on convergence of their standards with IFRS. Despite all these efforts over so many years, the worldwide adoption of IFRS still looks like a mystery as there is a lot of criticism against the same. The US GAAP is currently considered to be good and based on the true and fair view of the financial statements. On the other hand, IFRS focuses on Fair Market Value and has financials prepared based on the same. So the very idea is not much acceptable to USA which thinks that the existing GAAP provisions are good to go with (Brown, 2011). Apart from this, the bitterness among countries of the West is burnt out through IFRS. It is reported that the European Union agreed for the adoption of IFRS simply so that it could end the supremacy and legacy of US GAAP all over the world. The political forces in EU were also feared by the changes in German Law which allowed companies to either adopt US GAAP or IFRS or German GAAP and a lot of companies also adopted hybrid models. So to end this, entire EU decided the flat adoption of IFRS without any second choice (Landsman et. al, 2011). IFRS is also considered to be responsible for the bankruptcy of Germany and the EU crisis in the recent years. Hence countries like USA and India still believe that IFRS might not be compatible given the set up and structure of businesses in these countries. It is also believed that there are better ways of improving the quality of financial reporting without converging with IFRS (Meeks Swann, 2009). Thus there are a lot of criticisms against the adoption of IFRS from different parts of the world. Introduction In India, the forms of business organizations are sole trader, partnership business, joint stock companies, trusts, so on and so forth. The accounting for each of these is regulated by independent bodies. In India, the Accounting Standards are formulated by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India which is considered for review by the NACAS (National Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards) of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs and upon approval, these standards are notified to the Central Government for publishing in the Official Gazette of the Country which marks the establishment of standards that are both operative and enforceable under law (Northington, 2011). Accounting Standards and Auditing Standards The applicability of the Accounting Standards and Auditing Standards is common to all. Apart from this, since joint stock companies are publicly or privately owned and operated and also involve higher capital than a sole trader or partnership form of business, so the Companies Act, 2013 governs the functioning of the same. This Act also contains sections that require the maintenance of books of accounts in such a way that it gives a true and fair representation of the business transactions. The Companies Act also states that the Accounting Standards should be complied in full in the preparation of the accounts combined with the disclosure and specific reporting requirements laid down in the Schedules of the Companies Act, 2013. The Accounting Policies, assumptions or estimates used in the preparation of financial statements have to form a part of the Notes to Accounts (Maria, 2016). Apart from this the Income Tax Act, 1961 also contains a few provisions such as books of accounts can be maintained by assessee under the cash system or mercantile system, but a hybrid system is not allowed (Spiceland et. al, 2011). There is another section which requires that for the purpose of calculation of profit and gains of business or profession, the valuation of inventory should be done as per the regular method of accounting followed and adopted by the assessee. This amount can be further adjusted to include any duty, tax, and cess or fees actually incurred and paid by the assessee. Thus these are the requirements with reference to the Companies Act and Income Tax Act. But irrespective of this fact, Accounting Standards are equally applicable to all entities (Choi Meek, 2012). The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India has also issued Guidance Notes on Accounting Standards in which there are specific case studies and examples showing how to deal with the gray areas or such other complexities. The Guidance Notes also have to be followed wherever applicable (Hegarty et. al, 2014). There are listed companies which have to follow the requirements of the Listing Agreements signed with Securities and Exchange Board of India. A few areas like Related Party Disclosures are given specific importance by the Listing Agreement which states that the disclosure should be completely in compliance with the Accounting Standards on the specific areas (Needles Powers, 2013). Same is the case with Segment Reporting and Accounting for Taxes on Income where the Accounting Standards have to be followed from time to time even with reference to the reporting of unaudited financial results. Corporate Governance Report is also a requirement of the Listing Agreement (Davies Crawford, 2012). There are a few companies like Infosys and Reliance, which can be named among the Top 10 Indian companies. These companies anticipate the adoption of IFRS in India and have already commenced implementation of a few of the IFRS provisions as disclosed in detail in their annual reports (Brown, 2012). Thus the conceptual framework of accounting is India is guided by all the above discussed bodies and standards set by them. S for small businesses like sole traders and partnerships, accounting is fairly simple whereas for bigger corporate and listed entities, compliance with every specific Act and law becomes a mandate (Horngren, 2012). Indias Progress towards IFRS Indian jurisdiction has made a public commitment towards moving to a global platform and following high quality international accounting standards. A few studies have also shown that in emerging economies the cost of capital generally falls due to the adoption of IFRS which could be possibly the case with India. The Preface of the Indian Accounting Standards also acknowledges the urgent requirement of the convergence between IFRS and Indian Accounting Standards (Brown, 2012). Despite this, India has not completely adopted IFRS. Instead India has issued Ind-AS which is a new version of the Accounting Standards but most of the requirements are in consonance with the IFRS. At the end of each Ind-AS, the significant points of differences between Ind-AS and IFRS are also mentioned (William, 2010). Prior to 2013, SEBI had the authority for prescribing the Accounting Standards that listed companies have to follow. SEBI primarily required that the accounts are prepared according to the Accounting Standards issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, but it also afforded an option for large corporate houses with operations in India and abroad to choose reporting as per IFRS if they wished and around 11 companies chose the IFRS option. It needs to be noted that IFRS has provided utmost advantage to the analyst of the countries who have followed it. This has enhanced the information quality (IFRS, 2016) In 2013, the Companies Act was revised which made it mandatory for the companies to follow the Ind AS which is the new set of Accounting Standards issued by the ICAI. The Companies Act, 2013 did not give the option to SEBI to continue IFRS option. Still, companies which were previously following IFRS continued doing the same. In addition to the financial statements prepared as per IFRS, for the purpose of compliance with the Companies Act, 2013 these companies have to prepare separate financial statements in compliance with Ind-AS. Thus as per the current Indian regulations, Ind-AS is to be mandatorily followed, whereas IFRS is not mandatory (IFRS, 2016). It can be concluded that India is one such Asian giant that has come forward voluntarily to adopt IFRS and currently some 7 big corporate houses are preparing Financial Statements according to IFRS as these companies constitute 23% of the total Indian capital market and also these companies can get an appeal from international investors (Brealey et. al, 2011). IFRS adoption provides the passport for almost every capital market in Europe or USA. Ind-AS is not the same as IFRS and a lot of time and effort is required to understand, interpret and implement the same. Though this is a voluminous task, there is unlimited scope for growth and expansion (Brigham Daves, 2012). Conclusion Apart from these factors, the focus of IFRS on Fair Value over historical cost also makes it difficult for companies to adopt the same since the fair values of all the assets and liabilities might not be readily available (Bushman Piotroski, 2006). For these reasons, entities might intend to continue their existing accounting policies and might not shift to IFRS until the Government mandates the same. If the IFRS is made mandatory then it will lead to uniformity and better projection of result. On a closing note, it would be pertinent to say that there are a few carve out from the IFRS which need to be framed according to the Indian context to gain applicability (Parrino et. al, 2012). If this is done then a full transition to IFRS could become a reality. In short, it can be said that IFRS is endowed with immense benefits and helps to improve the capital market. Once IFRS is made mandatory in India it will provide strong development to the overall economy. However, it needs to be noted that along with the implementation of IFRS various political and social factors needs to be taken into consideration. References Bae, K.-H., Tan, H., Welker, M 2008, International GAAP differences: The impact on foreign analysts, Accounting Review, vol. 2, pp. 94-98 Brealey, R., Myers, S. and Allen, F 2011, Principles of corporate finance, New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Brigham, E. Daves, P 2012, Intermediate Financial Management , USA: Cengage Brown, P 2011, International Financial Reporting Standards: what are the benefits?, Accounting and Business research, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 269-285 Bushman, R. and Piotroski, R 2006, Financial reporting incentives for conservative accounting: The influence of legal and political institutions, Journal of Accounting and Economics, vol. 42, pp. 107-148. Choi, R.D. Meek, G.K 2011, International accounting, Pearson . Davies, T. Crawford, I 2012, Financial accounting, Harlow, England: Pearson. Gordon, L. A., Loeb, M. P., Zhu, W 2012, The impact of IFRS adoption on foreign direct investment, Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 374-398. Hegarty, J., Gielen, F., Barros, A 2004, The implementation of international accounting and auditing standards: Lessons learned from the World Bank's Accounting and Auditing ROSC Program: The World Bank. Horngren, C 2013, Financial accounting, Frenchs Forest, N.S.W: Pearson Australia Group. Landsman, W. R., Maydew, E. L., Thornock, J. R 2011, The information content of annual earnings announcements and mandatory adoption of IFRS, Journal of Accounting and Economics, vol.53, no. 2, pp. 34-54. Maria, W 2016, The Big Consequences of IFRS: How and When Does the Adoption of IFRS Benefit Global Accounting Firms?, The Accounting Review, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 1257-1283 Meeks, G., Swann, G.M.P 2009, Accounting standards and the economics of standards, Accounting and Business Research, International Accounting Policy Forum, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 23-44 Melville, A 2013, International Financial Reporting A Practical Guide, Pearson, Education Limited, UK Needles, B.E. Powers, M 2013, Principles of Financial Accounting, Francisco: Mc Graw-Hill Brook co. Northington, S 2011, Finance, New York, NY: Ferguson's. Parrino, R., Kidwell, D. and Bates, T 2012, Fundamentals of corporate finance, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. IFRS 2016, IFRS Application around the world: India, viewed 25 August, 2016, Spiceland, J., Thomas, W. and Herrmann, D 2011, Financial accounting, New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin University Press Wagenhofer, A 2014, The role of revenue recognition in performance reporting, OxfordUniversity Press Walker, M, Chua, W.F., Taylor, S. L 2008, The rise and rise of IFRS: An examination of IFRS diffusion, Journal of Accounting and public Policy, vol. 27, pp. 462-473 William, L 2010, Practical Financial Management, South-Western College.